The Cowlitz were a small Chinookan-speaking tribe who lived north of the Columbia River in houses made of wooden planks. The Cowlitz were a large and powerful Salishan tribe. They were an interior tribe for their territory did not open onto a large body of water, as a result they were more cohesive than other Salish groups on the coast and Columbia River. An epidemic wiped out much of the population around 1829-30, leaving about 500 Cowlitz. The population rebounded slightly, and today most of the 1,400 remaining Cowlitz live near their ancestral lands.

Cowlitz Indian Tribe history and events
National Geographic  
Cowlitz Tribe Background and History
Histories of Toledo The Early History of Toledo'
Gateway to 
Mount St. Helens
Department of Tourism Cowlitz County